Symptoms Risk Factors & Screening


You should check with your doctor if you have had any of the following symptoms:  

  • Pain or discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum.
  • Change in how a testicle feels.
  • Painless lump or swelling in either testicle.
  • Dull aching feeling in the lower abdomen area or the groin.
  • Sudden build-up of fluid in the scrotum.  


Most boys and men with testicular cancer may not have any of the known risk factors. However, it is still important to know what the risk factors are in order to decrease the risk of developing the disease. Risk factors for testicular cancer include:

  • Having an undescended testicle
  • Family history of testicular cancer
  • Previous history of testicular cancer before
  • HIV infection
  • Carcinoma in situ of the testicle
  • Being of a certain race/ethnicity
  • Body size

Testicular Cancer Screening

Testicular cancer can usually be found at an early stage. Many men find the cancer themselves while doing a self-examination. Or, their sexual partner may notice a change that can lead to a diagnosis.

Monthly testicular self-examinations, performed after a warm shower, can help find the cancer at an early stage, when there is a higher rate for a successful treatment.

It is recommended that men ages 15 to 55 perform a monthly self-examination to find any changes. Men who notice a lump, hardness, enlargement, pain, or any other change in 1 or both of their testicles should visit their doctor immediately.